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Low placentation at pregnancy: symptoms, threats and how to treat

No pregnant woman is insured against various complications. She can get to know about
them at different periods of her “interesting” position. One of such diagnosis that darkens the
mood of the future mom can be low placentation. What is it, is it possible to recognize this
condition before the ultrosonographic examination, what to do to save the pregnancy and how
the labor will occur – we will give answers to these questions.

What is low placentation?

The placenta is the organ necessary for the development and successful delivery of the
fetus. It is formed in the uterus. Through the circulatory system of the placenta the embryo
receives nutrients and oxygen.
When is the placenta formed? The initial stage of this process begins closer to the seventh
day after conception. During this period, the placenta's predecessor, the outer membrane,
develops around the fetus. The process of its formation is completed by the 20th week of
pregnancy.
The course of pregnancy and childbirth depends on the place of the placenta attachment
on the uterus wall. Ideally, the placenta is attached at the highest point inside the uterus: here are
the best conditions for the development of the embryo and excellent blood flow. But a pregnant
woman often is diagnosed with a low location of the placenta. This is low placentation. In this
condition, the embryo is attached closer than 5.5-6 cm to the exit from the uterus (mouth).

Causes of low attachment of the placenta

Why does low placentation occur? There are many reasons. Conventionally, they are
divided into congenital and acquired – due to past illnesses, operations, abortions.
The reasons for low attachment of the placenta include:

  • abnormal development of the internal genital organs of a woman;
  • age over 30 years;
  • inflammatory diseases of the mucous membrane of the uterus and pelvic organs;
  • the presence of sexually transmitted diseases;
  • previous surgeries on the reproductive organs;
  • neoplasms in the uterus;
  • multiple pregnancy;
  • a large number of births;
  • childbirth with bleeding and separation of the placenta;
  • artificial interruption of pregnancy (abortion).

Symptoms of low placentation

The doctor makes a diagnosis at the ultrasonographic examination. The so called
alarming "bells", requiring attention include:

  • nagging pain in lower abdomen and lower back;
  • bleeding (regardless of their abundance, immediately consult a doctor);
  • low blood pressure;
  • weakness;
  • increased fatigue;
  • dizziness.

However, the presence of these symptoms is not mandatory. In any case, if at least one of
them is present, consult a doctor who is taking care of you during your pregnancy.

Danger of low placentation for the course of pregnancy

If the placenta is lowered, the fetus presses on it as it grows. This can lead to bleeding
and placental abruption. The latter is a serious threat not only for the life of the future baby, but
also for the life of a pregnant woman.
One more danger of the low placentation is the threat of miscarriage and other
complications.
As the fetus grows, the placenta shifts. At low placentation on the front wall, the
entanglement of the umbilical cord and overlapping of the exit from the uterus are not excluded.
If a pregnant woman has low placentation on the back wall, then there can be more
complications. Subjectively, a woman may feel pressure in the lower abdomen, complain of pain,
which will increase with the growth of the fetus. Since there are few vessels in the lower part of
the uterus, the fetus can receive less oxygen and beneficial substances due to the lowered
placenta.

Central (full) placenta previa

This is a more serious diagnosis than low placentation in pregnant women. At central
placenta praevia the latter is located at the bottom of the uterus, blocking the exit from it. There
is also a partial previa – edge and side. In the first case, two-thirds of the placenta tissue closes
the exit from the uterus, in the second – no more than a third of its mouth. At the central placenta
previa, labor is carried out by caesarean section.

Is it always worth worrying?

In the last months of pregnancy, the placenta often rises. Therefore, until mid-term, the
low location of the placenta is only a hint to the gynecologist to pay special attention to the
patient. If before 36 weeks the placenta has not risen higher, it is better to hospitalize the
pregnant woman at 38 weeks in the clinic.

Treatment at a low location of the placenta

There is no treatment for this condition. There are only recommendations to follow. In
any case, it is better to take care of yourself and the future baby.
The low placentation requires:

  • to eliminate serious physical loading;
  • to get enough sleep and rest a lot;
  • to eat right so that the child gets the right amount of vitamins;
  • to see a doctor if something is bothering you;
  • to stay calm;
  • during sleep, to put a pillow under your feet – they should be above the level of the pelvis;
  • to refuse temporarily from sexual life;
  • to go to the hospital if the placenta has not risen before the 36th week.

Low placentation at birth

Childbirth with such a diagnosis usually takes place naturally, if the placenta does not
overlap the mouth of the uterus. Much depends on how the child lies:
– head to the uterus mouth – the baby will appear naturally, if there are no other indications for
cesarean section;
– if the baby is located incorrectly, a planned caesarean section will be performed.

For a woman in labor, in any case, the main thing is to tune in to a favorable outcome, not to be
nervous and trust the professionals.

The investition to the child’s future – the umbilical cord blood

You have the opportunity immediately after birth to ask the doctors to collect umbilical cord
blood. It contains stem cells, which are used in the treatment of various diseases: from diabetes
and viral diseases to the disorders of the immune and circulatory system.
Stem cells under cryogenic conditions preserve their vital properties for decades. At the same
time, they can be used to treat both the child and their relatives.
Today, stem cell therapies have been successfully applied worldwide. In Ukraine, the leading
positions in the development and application of such techniques belong to the Institute of Cell
Therapy. Cord blood stem cells are stored in a Cryobank of the Institute of Cell Therapy in
special containers with guaranteed maintenance of the necessary conditions.

Why is it worth to save cord blood in Cryobank?

Today, more than 100 diseases can be cured with stem cells.
The procedure of cord blood collection is possible only at the birth of a child – at the time of
cutting the umbilical cord. And for the child, and for the parturient woman it is absolutely safe
and painless.
When every day matters, and there is no opportunity to find urgently a suitable donor, the
only way is treatment with stem cells. Compared to the search for a donor that takes months,
then stem cell preparation takes several hours.
The feeling of maximum peace for the most valuable in life – for children, is possible only if
you are 100% sure that the right medicine is at hand. It is stored in the Cryobank of the Institute
of Cell Therapy and is available to you and your family upon request.